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موضوع بندی
شنبه 5 خرداد‌ماه سال 1386
A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CONJUNCTIONS

 

A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence. When a coordinating conjunction is used to join elements, the element becomes a compound element. Correlative conjunctions also connect sentence elements of the same kind: however, unlike coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. Subordinating conjunctions, the largest class of conjunctions, connect subordinate clauses to a main clause. These conjunctions are adverbs used as conjunctions.

The following tables show examples of the various types of conjunctions and some sample sentences using the conjunctions. Since coordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions are closed sets of words, all are included in the list. Subordinating conjunctions are a larger class of words; therefore, only a few of the more common ones are included in this list.

 

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

F

A

N

B

O

Y

S

for

and

nor

but

or

yet

so

 

An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions. Remember, when using a conjunction to join two sentences, use a comma before the conjunction.

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

 

CONJUNCTION

WHAT IS LINKED

SAMPLE SENTENCES

and

noun phrase+noun phrase

We have tickets for the symphony and the opera.

but

sentence+sentence

The orchestra rehearses on Tuesday, but the chorus rehearses on Wednesday.

or

verb+verb

Have you seen or heard the opera by Scott Joplin?

 

 

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 

both...and

not only...but also

either...or

neither...nor

whether...or

 

Remember, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They join similar elements.When joining singular and plural subjects, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 

CONJUNCTIONS

WHAT IS LINKED

SAMPLE SENTENCE

both...and

subject+subject

Both my sister and my brother play the piano.

either...or

noun+noun

Tonight's program is either Mozart or Beethoven.

neither...nor

subject+subject

Neither the orchestra nor the chorus was able to overcome the terrible acoustics in the church

not only...but also

sentence+sentence

Not only does Sue raise money for the symphony, but she also ushers at all of their concerts.

 

 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

TIME

CAUSE + EFFECT

OPPOSITION

CONDITION

after

because

although

if

before

since

though

unless

when

now that

even though

only if

while

as

whereas

whether or not

since

in order that

while

even if

until

so

 

in case (that)

 

Subordinating conjunctions, (subordinators) are most important in creating subordinating clauses. These adverbs that act like conjunctions are placed at the front of the clause. The adverbial clause can come either before or after the main clause. Subordinators are usually a single word, but there are also a number of multi-word subordinators that function like a single subordinating conjunction. They can be classified according to their use in regard to time, cause and effect, opposition, or condition. Remember, put a comma at the end of the adverbial phrase when it precedes the main clause

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

CONJUNCTION

SAMPLE SENTENCE

after

We are going out to eat after we finish taking the test.

since

Since we have lived in Atlanta, we have gone to every exhibit at the High Musuem.

while

While I was waiting in line for the Matisse Exhibit, I ate my lunch.

although

Although the line was long and the wait over two hours, the exhibit was well worth it

even if

Even if you have already bought your ticket, you will still need to wait in line.

because

I love Matisse's works because he uses color so brilliantly.

 

RESOURCES:

  • Azar, B. S.(1993). Understanding and Using English Grammar. Englewood Hills, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
  • Byrd, P. and Benson, B. (1992). Applied English Grammar. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Greenbaum, S. and Quirk, R. (1990). A Student's Grammar of the English Language. Essex, England: Longman.
  • Hodges, J. and Whitten, M. (1984). Harbrace College Handbook. Atlanta: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publisher.

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