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آموزش زبان انگلیسی
آموزش زبان انگلیسی ,آموزش گرامر انگلیسی , مکالمه انگلیسی, اصطلاح , لغت , تست , سرگرمی , ضرب المثل, شعر , داستان , نکته ها ی مهم , و اخبار جالب..

"آموزش رایگان حق شما است"

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موضوع بندی
سه‌شنبه 31 خرداد‌ماه سال 1390
Cancer: Medical Vocabulary لغات مرتبط با سرطان

سلام دوستای گلم

لغات مربوط به سرطان رو گذاشتم براتون.البته امیدوارم لازمتون نشه.

همیشه سلامت و سر بلند و شاد باشید.

در ضمن همچنان به یاری سبزتان نیازمندیم

از عزیزانی که مایل هستن در این وبلاگ همکاری کنن تو قسمت نظرات اسم و آدرس ایمیل بزارن تا به جمع ما اضافه بشن.دوستانی که انگلیسی خوب بلدن.


Cancer: Medical Vocabulary

The following are terms that you might hear during the diagnosis and treatment of cancer:
Adjuvant therapy: Chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy used to kill remaining cancer cells left behind after surgery.

Advance Directive: Instructions on what kind of care you would like to receive (or not receive) if you become unable to make medical decisions.

Benign: Any tumor, growth or cell abnormality that is not cancerous. The growth will not spread to deeper tissues or other parts of the body.

Biological Therapy: Therapy that uses the body's own immune system to attack cancer cells. Biological therapy is sometimes called immunotherapy, biotherapy or biological response therapy.

Biopsy: Removal of a small portion of tissue to see whether it is cancerous.

Carcinoma In Situ (CIS): Cancer that involves only the cells in which it started and has not spread to deeper tissues or other parts of the body.

Chemotherapy: Therapy that uses drugs to damage cancer cells and make it difficult for them to grow in number.

Clinical Breast Exam: Examination done by a health-care professional who has training in breast health.

Clinical Trials: Research studies that involve actual patients. They are designed to find better ways to manage cancer (and other medical conditions and diseases) from prevention and detection to diagnosis and treatment.

Colonoscopy: Insertion of a long, flexible, lighted tube through the rectum and into the colon. This allows the physician to check the lining of the colon for abnormalities.

Colposcopy: procedure where a lighted, magnifying instrument (colposcope) is used to examine vaginal and cervical abnormalities.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Therapy used during or after cancer treatment that may help relieve the symptoms of cancer and/or standard cancer treatments. Some examples of CAM include meditation, yoga, spiritual counseling, acupuncture, acupressure and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

Digital Rectal Exam: Exam where the doctor feels inside the rectum with his or her finger and checks for abnormalities.

Family History and Genetic Risk Factor: Increased risk of cancer because a close relative (such as a mother or a sister) had or has had the disease.

Family Physician: A doctor who specializes in treating every part and disorder of the human body. He or she may manage all or part of your cancer treatment.

Fecal Occult Blood Test: Test that checks for the presence of blood in the stool. This test can be used to help diagnose colorectal cancer.

Fibroid: A benign tumor usually found in the uterus.

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: Insertion of a flexible, lighted tube into the rectum. This tube is shorter than the tube used in a colonoscopy. It allows the physician to check the rectum and part of the colon for abnormalities.

Follow-up: An appointment with your doctor after treatment to check the status of your cancer and overall health.

Invasive Cancer: Cancer that starts in one area of the body and then spreads to the deeper tissues of that same area.

Localized: Cancer affecting only the cells of a certain area.

Lumpectomy: Surgery that removes abnormal or cancerous tissue and sometimes part of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Malignant: Indicates that cancer cells are present and may be able to spread to other parts of the body.

Mammogram: An X-ray taken of the breast in order to check for abnormalities.

Mastectomy: Surgical procedure that removes all or part of a diseased (cancerous) breast.

Melanoma: A type of skin cancer where the cancerous cells are found in the melanocytes (cells that make the skin darker after being exposed to natural or artificial sunlight).

Nonmelanoma: A type of skin cancer where the cancerous cells are found in places other than the melanocytes.

Metastasis: The spread of cancer from one area of the body to another. For example, breast cancer may spread to the lymph nodes and lung cancer may spread to the brain.

Neoadjuvant Therapy: Chemotherapy or radiotherapy given before surgery.

Oncologist: A physician who specializes in cancer and its treatment.

Palliative Care: Therapy that focuses on improving one's quality of life rather than curing his or her cancer.

Polyp: Usually a benign growth. Some polyps on the wall of the colon or rectum can contain cancer or become cancerous over time.

Pap Smear: A test that involves the scraping and study of cells that line the cervix. Pap smears (also called pap tests) are used to detect precancerous and cancerous cells, as well as other noncancerous conditions.

Pathologist: A doctor who identifies diseases (such as cancer) by studying cells under a microscope.

Prognosis: The expected outcome of a disease and chances for recovery.

Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for a body part such as a breast or leg.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: A test that measures the amount of a substance created by the prostate gland in the blood. An elevated amount could be the result of infection, prostate cancer or an enlarged prostate.

Radiation Therapy (also called radiotherapy): Therapy that uses high-energy rays (beams of light) or radioactive materials to damage cancer cells, making it more difficult for them to grow in number.

Reconstructive Surgery: Operation performed to repair skin and muscles after surgery to treat cancer has been performed. Often used to reconstruct a breast after a mastectomy.

Recurrence: The development of cancerous cells in the same area or another area of the body after cancer treatment.

Risk Factors: Behaviors (such as smoking) or other circumstances (family or genetic history) that may increase your risk of cancer.

Side effects (of therapy): problems caused by the damage of healthy cells along with cancerous cells during treatment. Some common side effects of cancer therapy include being tired, feeling sick to your stomach (nausea), throwing up, hair loss and mouth sores.

Stages of Cancer: The progression of cancer from mild to severe. Usually indicates whether it has spread to deeper tissues or other parts of the body. One method used by doctors to stage different types of cancer is the TNM classification system. In this system, doctors determine the presence and size of the tumor (T), how many (if any) lymph nodes are involved (N) and whether or not the cancer has metastasized (M). A number (usually 0-4) is assigned to each of the three categories to indicate its severity.

Surgery: A procedure that removes, repairs or allows for the further study of a part of the body.

Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue that can be benign or malignant


http://quizlet.com/4707848/cancer-vocabulary-flash-cards/

پنج‌شنبه 12 خرداد‌ماه سال 1390
آموزش زبان انگلیسی:دانلود رایگان آموزش زبان در خواب

دانلود رایگان آموزش زبان انگلیسی در خواب




امواج مغزی انسان در حالت خواب با حالت بیداری تفاوت می کند. وقتی انسان خواب است امواج مغزی او شکل خاصی می گیرند و به همین دلیل انسان خوابیده و فقط آن امواج را می شناسد و با آن امواج واکنش های بدن خود را تنظیم می کند. حال تصور کنید که یک دوره کامل آموزش انگلیسی به صورت صوتی (و به شکل آموزش زبان مادری یعنی ابتدا درس به فارسی تشریح و سپس به زبان انگلیسی ارائه شود.) حاوی بیش از چهل ساعت آموزش با امواج مغزی حالت خواب مدوله شود. یعنی به اصطلاح مهندسی مخابرات پوش امواج مغزی اصوات آموزشی باشند. در این حالت مغز ضمن پذیرش امواج خواب عمیق، امواج ضمیمه و پوش آن را نیز بدون مقاومت می پذیرد و آنها را به درونی ترین لایه های خود راه می دهد. اکنون فرض کنید با تکنیک ‌binaural صداهای آموزشی فضایی شوند. یعنی به شکلی درآیند که تمام محفظه اسکلت درون مغز را به سلطه خود درآورند و فرد خوابیده احساس کند که به جای یک صدای بیرونی از درون فضای سرش صداها بیرون می آیند (یعنی درست حالتی که انسان وقتی با خودش حرف می زند و گفتگوی درونی روزانه خود را شکل می دهد). در این حالت مغز انسان با لذت و شوق و آغوش باز تمام اطلاعات صوتی را بدون هیچ پیشداوری به درون حافظه عمیق و ضمیر ناخودآگاه ارسال می کند و چند ساعت بعد که فرد از خواب بیدار می شود می بیند به طور ناخودآگاه هزاران واژه و اصطلاح انگلیسی برایش آشنا و معنا دار شده اند و از همه مهم تر هنگام برخورد با یک مطلب احساس می کند که قبلا آن را جایی شنیده است و برایش بسیار آشنااست. با توجه به اینکه این شیوه یادگیری مستقیما در داخل مغز و سوار بر محمل امواج مغزی صورت می گیرد، اثر بخشی آن فوق العاده است. این در حالی است که درس های آموزشی انتخابی همزمان فارسی و انگلیسی هستند و در نتیجه فرد احساس می کند که درس های انگلیسی داده شده در حقیقت بخشی توسعه یافته از واژه نامه و دایره لغات فارسی او هستند و به قولی دیگر زبانی جدید نیاموخته بلکه همان زبان مادری اش را توسعه داده است که این شکل یادگیری زبان عالی ترین و صحیح ترین شکل ممکن برای آموختن یک زبان جدید است. مجموعه یادگیری انگلیسی در رویا با حضور بیش از پنجاه مهندس و روانشناس و زبان شناس تهیه شده است و در نوع خود عالی ترین شکل آموزش سریع زبان انگلیسی برای تمام سنین محسوب می شود.منبع:سایت میهن دانلود

ادامه مطلب ...

پنج‌شنبه 12 خرداد‌ماه سال 1390
آموزش زبان انگلیسی:دانلود آخرین نسخه دیکشنری لانگمن

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 5th Edition


نرم افزار دیکشنری Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English یکی از معروف ترین و پرطرفدار ترین دیکشنری های حال حاضر جهان به شمار میرود. این نرم افزار کاملترین دیکشنری زبان انگلیسی است و یک منبع کامل لغات و جملات زبان انگلیسی می باشد. شما با داشتن این نرم افزار دیگر نیازی به خرید کتاب های مختلف دیکشنری ندارید چرا که این برنامه مرجع کامل لغات زبان انگلیسی است. در این نرم افزار بیش از 230,000 کلمه، لغت ، معنی، مثال و ... قرار دارد و همچنین بیش از 165,000 جمله و مثال مختلف به زبان انگلیسی در این برنامه گنجانده شده است. این برنامه علاوه بر اینکه یک مترجم لغات است، یک نرم افزار آموزش زبان انگلیسی نیز می باشد. در واقع در این نرم افزار قسمت های مختلف آموزش زبان قرار گرفته که به شما در یادگیری بهتر زبان انگلیسی کمک بسیار زیادی می کند. به عنوان مثال وقتی شما لغتی را برای ترجمه وارد این نرم افزار می کنید، علاوه بر اینکه نرم افزار معنی کامل آنرا در اختیار شما قرار می دهد اطلاعات دیگری مانند کلمات مترادف، کاربرد کلمه در فرهنگ های مختلف، طریقه تلفظ صحیح لغت، کلمات متضاد، کاردبر کلمه مورد نظر در جاهای مختلف، نوع کلمه از لحاظ دستوری، تمرین های مختلف در رابطه با لغت مورد نظر و ... را در رابطه با لغت مورد نظرتان را در اختیار شما قرار می دهد. علاوه بر این یکی از ویژگی های بسیار مهم این دیکشنری قابلیت تلفظ صحیح لغات و کلمات به دو لهجه ی امریکن و بریتیش می باشد که شما با استفاده از این قابلیت به راحتی می توانید با تلفظ صحیح لغت مورد نظرتان نیز آشنا شوید. همچنین با کمک این برنامه می توانید خود را برای امتحان در آزمون های مختلف زبان انگلیسی نیز آماده کنید.

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ادامه مطلب ...


یکشنبه 8 خرداد‌ماه سال 1390
Intonation and Stress

 

Say this sentence aloud and count how many seconds it takes.

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.
Time required? Probably about 5 seconds. Now, try speaking this sentence aloud.

He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening.
Time required? Probably about 5 seconds.

Wait a minute the first sentence is much shorter than the second sentence!

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance
He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening
You are only partially right!


This simple exercise makes a very important point about how we speak and use English. Namely, English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered syllabic. What does that mean? It means that, in English, we give stress to certain words while other words are quickly spoken (some students say eaten!). In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).

Many speakers of syllabic languages don't understand why we quickly speak, or swallow, a number of words in a sentence. In syllabic languages each syllable has equal importance, and therefore equal time is needed. English however, spends more time on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other, less important, words.

Let's look at a simple example: the modal verb "can". When we use the positive form of "can" we quickly glide over the can and it is hardly pronounced.

They can come on Friday . (stressed words underlined)

On the other hand, when we use the negative form "can't" we tend to stress the fact that it is the negative form by also stressing "can't".

They can't come on Friday .

As you can see from the above example the sentence, "They can't come on Friday" is longer than "They can come on Friday" because both the modal "can't" and the verb "come" are stressed.

So, what does this mean for my speaking skills?

Well, first of all, you need to understand which words we generally stress and which we do not stress. Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDSsuch as

  • Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter
  • (most) principal verbs e.g. visit, construct
  • Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting
  • Adverbs e.g. often, carefully



Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as

  • Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few
  • Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were
  • Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite
  • Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as
  • Pronouns e.g. they, she, us


Let's return to the beginning example to demonstrate how this affects speech.

The beautifu l Mountain appeared transfixe d in the distance . (14 syllables)

He can come on Sunday s as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening
. (22 syllables)

Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressedwords in each sentence. From this example, you can see that you needn't worry about pronouncing every word clearly to be understood (we native speakers certainly don't). You should however, concentrate on pronouncing the stressed words clearly.

Now, do some listening comprehension or go speak to your native English speaking friends and listen to how we concentrate on the stressed words rather than giving importance to each syllable. You will soon find that you can understand and communicate more because you begin to listen for (and use in speaking) stressed words. All those words that you thought you didn't understand are really not crucial for understanding the sense or making yourself understood. Stressed words are the key to excellent pronunciation and understanding of English.

I hope this short introduction to the importance of stress in English will help you to improve  your understanding and speaking skills 

 

 

 

GOOD LUCK 

 

 


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