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وکیل جرایم سایبری
آموزش زبان انگلیسی
آموزش زبان انگلیسی ,آموزش گرامر انگلیسی , مکالمه انگلیسی, اصطلاح , لغت , تست , سرگرمی , ضرب المثل, شعر , داستان , نکته ها ی مهم , و اخبار جالب..

"آموزش رایگان حق شما است"

آرشیو
موضوع بندی
پنج‌شنبه 5 آبان‌ماه سال 1390
آموزش زبان انگلیسی-نامه ی آبراهام لینکلن به معلم پسرش

Abraham Lincoln's letter to his son's teacher



He will have to learn, I know,
that all men are not just,
all men are not true.
But teach him also that
for every scoundrel there is a hero;
that for every selfish Politician,
there is a dedicated leader...
Teach him for every enemy there is a
friend,

Steer him away from envy,
if you can,
teach him the secret of
quiet laughter.

Let him learn early that
the bullies are the easiest to lick... Teach him, if you can,
the wonder of books...
But also give him quiet time
to ponder the eternal mystery of birds in the sky,
bees in the sun,
and the flowers on a green hillside.

In the school teach him
it is far honourable to fail
than to cheat...
Teach him to have faith
in his own ideas,
even if everyone tells him
they are wrong...
Teach him to be gentle
with gentle people,
and tough with the tough.

Try to give my son
the strength not to follow the crowd
when everyone is getting on the band wagon...
Teach him to listen to all men...
but teach him also to filter
all he hears on a screen of truth,
and take only the good
that comes through.

Teach him if you can,
how to laugh when he is sad...
Teach him there is no shame in tears,
Teach him to scoff at cynics
and to beware of too much sweetness...
Teach him to sell his brawn
and brain to the highest bidders
but never to put a price-tag
on his heart and soul.

Teach him to close his ears
to a howling mob
and to stand and fight
if he thinks he's right.
Treat him gently,
but do not cuddle him,
because only the test
of fire makes fine steel.

Let him have the courage
to be impatient...
let him have the patience to be brave.
Teach him always
to have sublime faith in himself,
because then he will have
sublime faith in mankind.

This is a big order,
but see what you can do...
He is such a fine fellow,
my son!


یکشنبه 16 مرداد‌ماه سال 1390
Learning English through Reading

Right now you are reading English. That means that you are using your brain in a very active way. Reading is a very active process. It is true that the writer does a lot of work, but the reader also has to work hard. When you read a text, you have to do some or all of these:

  • imagine a scene in your head
  • understand clearly what the writer is trying to say
  • agree or disagree with the writer

Advantages of Reading

When you learn a language, listening, speaking and writing are important, but reading can also be very helpful. There are many advantages associated with reading, including:

Learning Vocabulary In Context

You will usually encounter new words when you read. If there are too many new words for you, then the level is too high and you should read something simpler. But if there are, say, a maximum of five new words per page, you will learn this vocabulary easily. You may not even need to use a dictionary because you can guess the meaning from the rest of the text (from the context). Not only do you learn new words, but you see them being used naturally.

A Model For Writing

When you read, it gives you a good example for writing. Texts that you read show you structures and expressions that you can use when you write.

Seeing "Correctly Structured" English

When people write, they usually use "correct" English with a proper grammatical structure. This is not always true when people speak. So, by reading you see and learn grammatical English naturally.

Working At Your Own Speed

You can read as fast or as slowly as you like. You can read ten pages in 30 minutes, or take one hour to explore just one page. It doesn't matter. The choice is yours. You cannot easily do this when speaking or listening. This is one of the big advantages of reading because different people work at different speeds.

Personal Interest

If you choose something to read that you like, it can actually be interesting and enjoyable. For example, if you like to read about football in your own language, why not read about football in English? You will get information about football and improve your English at the same time.

Five Tips for Reading

Tip #1

Try to read at the right level. Read something that you can (more or less) understand. If you need to stop every three words to look in a dictionary, it is not interesting for you and you will soon be discouraged.

Tip #2

Make a note of new vocabulary. If there are four or five new words on a page, write them in your vocabulary book. But you don't have to write them while you read. Instead, try to guess their meaning as you read; mark them with a pen; then come back when you have finished reading to check in a dictionary and add them to your vocabulary book.

Tip #3

Try to read regularly. For example, read for a short time once a day. Fifteen minutes every day is better than two hours every Sunday. Fix a time to read and keep to it. For example, you could read for fifteen minutes when you go to bed, or when you get up, or at lunchtime.

Tip #4

Be organised. Have everything ready:

  • something to read
  • a marker to highlight difficult words
  • a dictionary
  • your vocabulary book
  • a pen to write down the new words

Tip #5

Read what interests YOU. Choose a magazine or book about a subject that you like.

Things to Read

Newspapers

You can find English-language newspapers in all large cities around the world. Newspapers are interesting because they are about real life and the news. BUT they are not easy to read. Try reading newspapers if your level is intermediate or above.

Some British newspapers:

  • The Telegraph
  • The Times
  • The Independent
  • The Guardian
  • The Financial Times (business)
  • The Sunday Times

Some American newspapers:

  • The International Herald Tribune
  • The New York Times
  • The Wall Street Journal (business)

Magazines

Some magazines are published weekly, some monthly. You can find English-language magazines in many large cities around the world. If you cannot find the magazine you want in your town, you may be able to order it for delivery. Many magazines have pictures which can help your understanding. You will need an intermediate level for most magazines, but a pre-intermediate level may be ok for some magazines.

There are magazines on every subject:

  • Politics
  • Sport
  • The House
  • Cars
  • Music
  • Romance
  • Travel
  • Language
  • etc

Books

Books are divided mainly into:

  • Non-fiction (history, biography, travel, cooking etc)
  • Fiction (stories and novels)

Some books are easier to read than others. It often depends on the author. Agatha Christie, for example, wrote in an easier style and with simpler vocabulary than Stephen King. You can buy books in specialised English-language bookshops in large cities around the world. You may also be able to find some English-language books in libraries. And if you have a British Council in your city, you can borrow many English-language books from their library.

Short Stories

Short stories can be a good choice when learning a language because they are...short. It's like reading a whole book in a few pages. You have all the excitement of a story in a book, but you only have to read 5,000 or 10,000 words. So you can quite quickly finish the story and feel that you have achieved something. Short stories are published in magazines, in books of short stories, and on the Internet. You can also find short stories at EnglishClub.com English Reading.

Readers

Readers are books that are specially published to be easy to read. They are short and with simple vocabulary. They are usually available at different levels, so you should be able to find the right level for you. Many readers are stories by famous authors in simple form. This is an excellent way for you to start practising reading.

Cornflakes Packets

By "Cornflakes Packets", we mean any product you can buy that has English writing on or with it. If you buy a box of chocolates, or a new camera, why not read the description or instructions in English? There are many such examples, and they all give you an opportunity to read real English:

  • airline tickets
  • cans or packets of food
  • bottles of drink
  • tapes and CDs
  • user guides for videos, computers...
  • etc

Good luck with your reading. It will help you make a lot of Progress!


یکشنبه 11 شهریور‌ماه سال 1386
Battle of the Sexes

Maturity
Women mature at a much faster rate than men. Most 17 year old females can function as adults. Most 17 year old males are still trading baseball cards and giving each other wedgies after gym class. This is why high school romances rarely work.

Groceries
A woman knows how to shop for groceries. She makes a list of the things she needs, and then goes to the store and buys these things. A man does not shop on a frequent basis. He waits until the only items left in his refrigerator are an opened can of Schlitz and a half a lime. Then he goes grocery shopping. A man buys everything that looks good. By the time a man reaches the checkout counter, his cart is packed tighter than the Clampett's car on the Beverly Hillbillies. Of course, this will not stop him from going to the 10 items or less lane.

Magazines
Men's magazines often feature pictures of naked ladies. Women's magazines also feature pictures of naked ladies. This is because the female body is a beautiful work of art, while the male body is lumpy and hairy and should not be seen by the light of day.

Handwriting
To their credit, men do not decorate their penmanship. They just chicken-scratch. Women use scented, colored stationary, and they dot their "i's" with circles and hearts. Women use ridiculously large loops in their "p's" and "g's." It is a royal pain to read a note from a woman. Even when she's dumping you, she'll put a smiley face at the end of the note.

Comedy
Let's say a small group of men and women are in a room, watching television, and an episode of the Three Stooges comes on. Immediately, the men will get very excited; they will laugh uproariously, and even try to imitate the actions of Curly, man's favorite stooge. The woman will roll their eyes and groan and wait it out.

Bathrooms
A man has 6 items in his bathroom: a toothbrush, toothpaste, shaving cream, a razor, a bar of Dial soap and a towel from a Holiday Inn. The average number of items in a typical American women's bathroom is 437. A man would not be able to identify most of these items

 

Going Out
When a man says he is ready to go out, it means he is ready to go out. When a woman says she is ready to go out, it means she will be ready, as soon as she finds her other earring, makes one phone call and finishes putting on her makeup.

Cats
Women love cats. Men say they love cats, but when women aren't looking, men kick cats.

Shoes
When preparing for work, a woman will put on a Mondi wool suit, and then slip into Reebok sneakers. She will carry her dress shoes in a plastic bag from Saks. When a woman gets to work, she will put on her dress shoes. Five minutes later she will kick them off because her feet are under the desk. A man will wear one pair of shoes for the entire day.

Leg Warmers
Leg warmers are sexy. A woman, even if she's walking the dog or doing the dishes, is allowed to wear leg warmers. She can wear them any time she wants. A man can only wear leg warmers if he is auditioning for the "Gimme the Ball" number in A Chorus Line.

Mirrors
Men are vain; they will check themselves out in the mirror. Women are ridiculous; they will check out their reflections in any shiny surface, mirrors, spoons, store windows, toasters, or Joe Garagiola's head.

Menopause
When a woman reaches menopause, she goes through a variety of complicated emotional, psychological, and biological changes. The nature and degree of these changes varies with the individual. Menopause in a man provokes a uniform reaction -- he buys aviator glasses, a snazzy French cap and leather driving gloves, and goes shopping for a Porsche.

The Telephone
Men see the telephone as a communication tool. They use the telephone to send short messages to other people. A woman can visit her girlfriend for two weeks, and upon returning home, she will call the same friend and they will talk for three hours.

Offspring
Ah, children. A woman knows all about her children. She knows about dentist appointments and soccer games and romances and best friends and favorite foods and hopes and dreams. A man is vaguely aware of some short people living in his house.

Low Blows
Let's say a man and a woman are watching a boxing match on television. One of the figures is felled by a low blow. The woman says, "Oh gee, that must hurt." The man doubles over and actually feels the pain.

Directions
If a woman is out driving, and she finds herself in unfamiliar surroundings, she will stop at a gas station and ask for directions. Men consider this to be a sign of weakness. Men will never stop and ask for directions. Men will drive in a circle for hours, all the while saying things like, "Looks like I've found a new way to get there." and, "I know I'm in the general neighborhood. I recognize that White Hen store."

Admitting Mistakes
Women will sometimes admit making a mistake. The last man who admitted he as wrong was General George Custer.

Richard Gere

Women like Richard Gere because he is sexy in a dangerous way. Men hate Richard Gere because he reminds them of that slick guy who works at the health club and dates only married women.

Dressing Up
A woman will dress up to: go shopping, water the plants, empty the garbage, answer the phone, read a book, get the mail. A man will dress up for: weddings, funerals.

Nicknames
With the exception of female body builders, who call each other names like "Ultimate Pecs" and "Big Turk," women eschew the use of nicknames. If Gloria, Suzanne, Deborah, and Michelle get together for lunch, they will call each other Gloria, Suzanne, Deborah, and Michelle. But if Mike, Dirk, Clint, and Jack go out for a brewski, they will affectionately refer to one another as Bullet-Head, Godzilla, Peanut-Brain, and Useless.

Toys
Little girls love to play with toys. Then when they reach the age of 11 or 12, they lose interest. Men never grow out of their obsession with toys. As they get older, their toys simply become more expensive and silly and impractical. Examples of men's toys: little miniature TV's. Car phones. Complicated juicers and blenders. Graphic equalizers. Small robots that serve cocktails on command. Video games. Anything that blinks, beeps, and requires atleast 6 "D" batteries to operate.

Plants
A woman asks a man to water her plants while she is on vacation. The man waters the plants. The woman comes home five or six days later to an apartment full of dead plants. No one knows why this happens.

Mustaches
Some men look good with mustaches. Those men are Tom Selleck and Burt Reynolds. There are no women who look good with mustaches.

Cameras
Men take photography very seriously. They'll shell out $4000 for stateof the art equipment, and build dark rooms and take photography classes. Women purchase Kodak Instamatics. Of course women always end up taking better pictures.

Locker Rooms
In the locker room men talk about three things: money, football, and women, They exaggerate about money, they don't know football nearly as well as they think they do, and they fabricate stories about women. Women talk about one thing in the locker room -- sex. And not in abstract terms, either. They are extremely graphic and technical, and they never lie.

Laundry
Women do the laundry every couple of days. A man will wear every article of clothing he owns, including his surgical pants that were really hip about eight years ago, before he will do the laundry. When he is finally out of clothes, he will wear a dirty sweatsuit inside out, rent a U-Haul and take his mountain of dirty clothes to the Laundromat. Men always expect to met beautiful women at the Laundromat, but this is only a myth perpetuated by old reruns of Love American Style.

Politics
Men love to talk politics, but often they forget to do political things such as voting. Women are very happy that another generation of Kennedy's is growing up and getting into politics because they will be able to campaign for them and cry on election night.

Weddings
When reminiscing about weddings women talk about "the ceremony." Men talk about "the bachelor party."

Cheerleaders
Female cheerleaders are cute, sexy, fresh, and all American. Male cheerleaders are scary.

Garages
Women use garages to park their cars and store their lawnmowers. Men use garages for many things. They hang license plates in garages, and they watch TV in garages, and they build useless lopsided benches in garages.

Movies
For women their favorite movie scene is when Clark Gable kisses Vivien Leigh for the first time in Gone With the Wind. For men it's when Jimmy Cagney shoves grapefruit in May Clark's face in Public Enemy.

Nudity in Movies
Every actress in the history of movies has had to do a nude scene. This is because every movie in the history of movies has been produced by aman. The only actor who has ever appeared nude in the movies is Richard Gere. This is another reason why men hate him.

Jewelry
Women look nice when they wear jewelry. A man can get away with wearing one ring and that's it. Any more than that and he will look like a lounge singer named Vic.
.


دوشنبه 4 دی‌ماه سال 1385
Merry Xmas

Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday that marks the traditional birthdate of Jesus of Nazareth. Christmas combines the celebration of Jesus' birth with various other traditions and customs, many of which were influenced by ancient winter festivals such as Yule[1] and Saturnalia. Christmas traditions include the display of Nativity scenes and Christmas trees, the exchange of gifts and cards, and the arrival of Father Christmas (Santa Claus) on Christmas Eve. Popular Christmas themes include the promotion of goodwill, giving, compassion, and quality family time.

Christmas Day falls on December 25. It is preceded by Christmas Eve on December 24, and in some countries is followed by Boxing Day on December 26. Some Eastern Orthodox Churches celebrate Christmas on January 7, which corresponds to December 25 on the Julian calendar. December 25 as a birthdate for Jesus is merely traditional, and is not widely considered to be his actual date of birth.[2]

Christmas is celebrated in most countries around the world, owing to the spread of Christianity and Western culture. Various local and regional Christmas traditions are still practiced

Yule is the winter solstice celebration of the Scandinavian Norse mythology and Germanic pagans

Saturnalia is the feast at which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn, which took place on 17 December. Over the years, it expanded to a whole week, up to 23 December..
 

 


یکشنبه 23 بهمن‌ماه سال 1384
The History of Saint Valentine's Day

The History of Saint Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day started in the time of the Roman Empire.  In ancient Rome, February 14th was a holiday to honour Juno.  Juno was the Queen of the Roman Gods and Goddesses.  The Romans also knew her as the Goddess of women and marriage.  The following day, February 15th, began the Feast of Lupercalia.

The lives of young boys and girls were strictly separate.  However, one of the customs of the young people was name drawing.  On the eve of the festival of Lupercalia the names of Roman girls were written on slips of paper and placed into jars.  Each young man would draw a girl's name from the jar and would then be partners for the duration of the festival with the girl whom he chose.  Sometimes the pairing of the children lasted an entire year, and often, they would fall in love and would later marry.

Under the rule of Emperor Claudius II Rome was involved in many bloody and unpopular campaigns.  Claudius the Cruel was having a difficult time getting soldiers to join his military leagues.  He believed that the reason was that roman men did not want to leave their loves or families.  As a result, Claudius cancelled all marriages and engagements in Rome.  The good Saint Valentine was a priest at Rome in the days of Claudius II.  He and Saint Marius aided the Christian martyrs and secretly married couples, and for this kind deed Saint Valentine was apprehended and dragged before the Prefect of Rome, who condemned him to be beaten to death with clubs and to have his head cut off.  He suffered martyrdom on the 14th day of February, about the year 270.  At that time it was the custom in Rome, a very ancient custom, indeed, to celebrate in the month of February the Lupercalia, feasts in honour of a heathen god.  On these occasions, amidst a variety of pagan ceremonies, the names of young women were placed in a box, from which they were drawn by the men as chance directed.

The pastors of the early Christian Church in Rome endeavoured to do away with the pagan element in these feasts by substituting the names of saints for those of maidens.  And as the Lupercalia began about the middle of February, the pastors appear to have chosen Saint Valentine's Day for the celebration of this new feaSt. So it seems that the custom of young men choosing maidens for valentines, or saints as patrons for the coming year, arose in this way.
 
 


St. Valentine's Story

Let me introduce myself.  My name is Valentine.  I lived in Rome during the third century.  That was long, long ago! At that time, Rome was ruled by an emperor named Claudius.  I didn't like Emperor Claudius, and I wasn't the only one! A lot of people shared my feelings.

Claudius wanted to have a big army.  He expected men to volunteer to join.  Many men just did not want to fight in wars.  They did not want to leave their wives and families.  As you might have guessed, not many men signed up.  This made Claudius furious.  So what happened? He had a crazy idea.  He thought that if men were not married, they would not mind joining the army.  So Claudius decided not to allow any more marriages.  Young people thought his new law was cruel.  I thought it was preposterous! I certainly wasn't going to support that law!

Did I mention that I was a priest? One of my favourite activities was to marry couples.  Even after Emperor Claudius passed his law, I kept on performing marriage ceremonies -- secretly, of course.  It was really quite exciting.  Imagine a small candlelit room with only the bride and groom and myself.  We would whisper the words of the ceremony, listening all the while for the steps of soldiers.

One night, we did hear footsteps.  It was scary! Thank goodness the couple I was marrying escaped in time.  I was caught.  (Not quite as light on my feet as I used to be, I guess.) I was thrown in jail and told that my punishment was death.

I tried to stay cheerful.  And do you know what? Wonderful things happened.  Many young people came to the jail to visit me.  They threw flowers and notes up to my window.  They wanted me to know that they, too, believed in love.

One of these young people was the daughter of the prison guard.  Her father allowed her to visit me in the cell.  Sometimes we would sit and talk for hours.  She helped me to keep my spirits up.  She agreed that I did the right thing by ignoring the Emperor and going ahead with the secret marriages.  On the day I was to die, I left my friend a little note thanking her for her friendship and loyalty.  I signed it, "Love from your Valentine."

I believe that note started the custom of exchanging love messages on Valentine's Day.  It was written on the day I died, February 14, 269 A.D.  Now, every year on this day, people remember.  But most importantly, they think about love and friendship.  And when they think of Emperor Claudius, they remember how he tried to stand in the way of love, and they laugh -- because they know that love can't be beaten!


Valentine Traditions

Hundreds of years ago in England, many children dressed up as adults on Valentine's Day.  They went singing from home to home.  One verse they sang was:

Good morning to you, valentine;
Curl your locks as I do mine---
Two before and three behind.
Good morning to you, valentine. 
 
 
 
 In Wales wooden love spoons were carved and given as gifts on February 14th.  Hearts, keys and keyholes were favourite decorations on the spoons.  The decoration meant, "You unlock my heart!"
 
In the Middle Ages, young men and women drew names from a bowl to see who their valentines would be.  They would wear these names on their sleeves for one week.  To wear your heart on your sleeve now means that it is easy for other people to know how you are feeling.
 
 
 
 In some countries, a young woman may receive a gift of clothing from a young man.  If she keeps the gift, it means she will marry him.
 
Some people used to believe that if a woman saw a robin flying overhead on Valentine's Day, it meant she would marry a sailor.  If she saw a sparrow, she would marry a poor man and be very happy.  If she saw a goldfinch, she would marry a millionaire.
 
 
 
 A love seat is a wide chair.  It was first made to seat one woman and her wide dress.  Later, the love seat or courting seat had two sections, often in an S-shape.  In this way, a couple could sit together -- but not too closely!
 
Think of five or six names of boys or girls you might marry, As you twist the stem of an apple, recite the names until the stem comes off.  You will marry the person whose name you were saying when the stem fell off.
 
 
 
 Pick a dandelion that has gone to seed.  Take a deep breath and blow the seeds into the wind.  Count the seeds that remain on the stem.  That is the number of children you will have.
 
If you cut an apple in half and count how many seeds are inside, you will also know how many children you will have


Roman Empire:  noun the empire under Roman rule established in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western or Latin and Eastern or Greek Empire.
امپراطورى رم


Juno: n. goddess of marriage and wife of the god Jupiter (Roman Mythology); one of the 4 largest and brightest asteroids (Astronomy); regal and beautiful woman; female first name -نام زن ژوپیتر

Feast: n. banquet, huge meal, exceptionally delicious meal; something unusually pleasurable; holiday, religious festival -مهمانى ،سور،ضیافت ،عید،خوشگذرانى کردن ،جشن 

Lupercalia:
Lupercalia: also Lupercal 'lu:pəkal)
■  noun [usu. treated as sing.] an ancient Roman festival of purification and fertility, held annually on 15 February. روز 15 فوریه

Origin
L., neut. plural of lupercalis 'relating to Lupercus', Roman equivalent of the Greek god Pan.

 

strictly: adv. severely, harshly; literally; explicitly, exactly; absolutely, completely -اکیدا"،سخت ،دقیقا"


eve: n. day or evening before a holiday or other event; period of time before an important event -شب عید،شب ،شامگاه ،در شرف ،(باحرف بزرگ )حوا،جنس زن


Emperor: n. ruler, sovereign, monarch

-شاهنشاه ،امپراطور،امپراتور،فرمانفرما

Claudius: n. Claudius I (10 BC-AD 54), Roman emperor; Claudius II (AD 214-270), Roman emperor


priest: n. clergyman, minister; one who performs religious rites

 -کشیش ،مجتهد،روحانى


martyr: n. one who chooses to die or be put to death rather than renounce his faith; one who suffers greatly -
فدایى ،شهید


amidst: prep. in the middle of; surrounded by

درمیان ،وسط


 


پنج‌شنبه 13 بهمن‌ماه سال 1384
Valentines Day History

Valentines Day History


There are varying opinions as to the origin of Valentine's Day.  Some experts state that it originated from St. Valentine, a Roman who was martyred for refusing to give up Christianity.  He died on February 14, 269 A.D., the same day that had been devoted to love lotteries.  Legend also says that St. Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer's daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it "From Your Valentine".  Other aspects of the story say that Saint Valentine served as a priest at the temple during the reign of Emperor Claudius.  Claudius then had Valentine jailed for defying him.  In 496 A.D.  Pope Gelasius set aside February 14 to honour St. Valentine.
Gradually, February 14 became the date for exchanging love messages and St. Valentine became the patron saint of lovers.  The date was marked by sending poems and simple gifts such as flowers.  There was often a social gathering or a ball.
In the United States, Miss Esther Howland is given credit for sending the first valentine cards.  Commercial valentines were introduced in the 1800's and now the date is very commercialised.  The town of Loveland, Colorado, does a large post office business around February 14.  The spirit of good continues as valentines are sent out with sentimental verses and children exchange valentine cards at school.

Varying: adjective giving variety to

Expert: noun skilled, knowledgeable

Give up: abandon

Martyred: verb make into a martyr; execute on religious grounds; torture; persecute
Devoted to: loving towards, loyal to, faithful to; dedicated to
Legend: n. story that has been handed down over generations and cannot be proved to be true or fictitious, tale, myth, fable; collection of myths or fables; explanatory table for a map (or chart, etc.); inscription (on a coin, monument, etc.)

Farewell: ■ exclamation chiefly literary goodbye.
Noun an act of parting or of marking someone's departure.

Jailer:  noun PRISON OFFICER, jail keeper, one who is in charge of a jail or a section of a jail; one who imprisons another (also jailor), warder, wardress, warden, guard, captor; informal screw; archaic turnkey.

Priest:noun
     an ordained minister of the Catholic, Orthodox, or Anglican Church, authorized to perform certain rites and administer certain sacraments. ▶a person who performs ceremonies in a non-Christian religion.
     a mallet used to kill fish caught when angling.
■ Verb formal ordain to the priesthood.


The temple:
the Temple
Large Jewish building for the worship of God

 temple
Noun HOUSE OF GOD, shrine, sanctuary; church, cathedral, mosque, synagogue, shul; archaic fane.


Claudius: n. Claudius I (10 BC-AD 54), Roman emperor; Claudius II (AD 214-270), Roman emperor

Defying him: disobeyed him, openly challenged him
defy
Verb (defies, defying, defied)
     openly resist or refuse to obey.
     Challenge to do or prove something: he glowered at her, defying her to mock him. ▶be of such a kind or nature that (a specified action or attitude) is almost impossible: the effrontery of the man defied belief. ▶archaic challenge to combat.
 
Set aside:noun
     the policy of taking land out of production to reduce crop surpluses. ▶land taken out of production in this way.
     US a government contract awarded without competition to a minority-owned business.
     US a portion of funds reserved for a purpose.

Honour: (US honor) noun (British) respect, dignity
Noun
     great respect or esteem. ▶a feeling of pride and pleasure from being shown respect. ▶a source of esteem.
     a clear sense of what is morally right.
     a thing conferred as a distinction. ▶ (honours) a special distinction for proficiency in an examination. ▶ (honours) a course of degree studies more specialized than for an ordinary pass.
     (His, Your, etc. Honour) a title of respect for a circuit judge, a US mayor, and (in Irish or rustic speech) any person of rank.
     Golf the right of driving off first, having won the previous hole.
     Dated a woman's chastity.
     Bridge an ace, king, queen, jack, or ten. ▶ (honours) possession of at least four of these cards in the trump suit, or of all four aces in no trumps, for which a bonus is scored.
Verb
     regard with great respect. ▶pay public respect to.
     Bring esteem to (a place or event) with one's presence.
     fulfil (an obligation) or keep (an agreement). ▶accept (a bill) or pay (a cheque) when due.

phrase 
 
Do the honours informal perform a social duty for others, especially serve food or drink.
Honour bright Brit. dated on my honour.
honours are even Brit. there is equality in the contest.
In honour of as an expression of respect for.
On one's honour under a moral obligation.
On (or upon) my honour used to express sincerity.

gradually :
▶  adverb SLOWLY, slowly but surely, cautiously, gently, gingerly; piecemeal, little by little, bit by bit, inch by inch, by degrees; progressively, systematically; regularly, steadily.

Patron saint: noun
     a patron of the arts: SPONSOR, backer, financier, benefactor, benefactress, contributor, subscriber, donor; philanthropist, promoter, friend, supporter; informal angel.
     Club patrons: CUSTOMER, client, frequenter, consumer, user, visitor, guest; informal regular

:social gathering
Get-together, social event

commercialize :
Or commercialise

verb manage or exploit in a way designed to make a profit.

sentimental :
adj. appealing to the emotions; nostalgic, tender, romantic; overly emotional, corny

ادامه دارد...


پنج‌شنبه 10 دی‌ماه سال 1383
Cancer

مقاله زیر در مورد سرطان است.بخونید . اگر مشکلی در فهم آن(لغت ها) داشتید در گروه  یاهو این وب لاگ میتونید راهنمایی بخواهید.اگر من خودم هم فرصت نکنم سایرین میتونن راهنماییتون کنن.


Cancer

Author: Dr Beckie Lang

 

Although many factors are associated with an increased risk of cancer, it's estimated that 30 per cent of all cancers may be the result of our diet. Here are some tips to help you to reduce your risk.

 

Achieve and maintain a healthy weight

Obesity is associated with a marked increase in colorectal cancer, and some hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast and endometrial cancers.

 

Eat more fruit and vegetables

At least five portions of fruit and veg a day can reduce the risk of many different types of cancer. The exact reason for this is unknown, but it may be related to their fibre content, vitamins and minerals, other plant chemicals such as flavonoids, or the combination of all these nutrients. Vitamin and mineral supplements may be a useful addition to the diet for some people, but they aren't a substitute for fresh fruits and vegetables.

 

Eat more fibre

On average, most people need to eat about 50 per cent more fibre than they currently do to meet the recommended intake of 18g per day. Fibre is important to increase stool weight, which enables waste to pass easily from the body. Cancer of the large bowel is the second most prevalent cancer in the UK, affecting one in eight people. By increasing stool weight by 25 per cent, the incidence of this disease could be reduced by up to 15 per cent in Britain.

 

Eat less fat

A high-fat diet is linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. (See the advice on fat intake in the cardiovascular section).

 

Drink alcohol in moderation

Excessive intake of alcohol has been linked with an increased risk of cancer of the mouth, liver and throat. Limit your intake to no more than two to three units a day.


 


چهارشنبه 10 دی‌ماه سال 1382
xmas

Reading

Christmas

CULTURAL NOTE

In the United States, children can meet Santa Claus by going to a shopping mall. They stand in line to take their turn sitting on his lap and telling him what they want for Christmas. One of Santa's elves takes a picture of each child with Santa. Of course, because there are many shopping malls, there are many Santa Clauses! Who knows which the REAL one...is

?


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تعداد بازدیدکنندگان : 2092211


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