X
تبلیغات
وکیل جرایم سایبری
آموزش زبان انگلیسی
آموزش زبان انگلیسی ,آموزش گرامر انگلیسی , مکالمه انگلیسی, اصطلاح , لغت , تست , سرگرمی , ضرب المثل, شعر , داستان , نکته ها ی مهم , و اخبار جالب..

"آموزش رایگان حق شما است"

آرشیو
موضوع بندی
دوشنبه 26 آبان‌ماه سال 1393
20 Common Grammar Mistakes That (Almost) Everyone Makes آموزش زبان انگلیسی

20 Common Grammar Mistakes That (Almost) Everyone Makes



Who and Whom

This one opens a big can of worms. “Who” is a subjective — or nominative — pronoun, along with "he," "she," "it," "we," and "they." It’s used when the pronoun acts as the subject of a clause. “Whom” is an objective pronoun, along with "him," "her," "it", "us," and "them." It’s used when the pronoun acts as the object of a clause. Using “who” or “whom” depends on whether you’re referring to the subject or object of a sentence. When in doubt, substitute “who” with the subjective pronouns “he” or “she,” e.g., Who loves you? cf., He loves me.Similarly, you can also substitute “whom” with the objective pronouns “him” or “her.” e.g.I consulted an attorney whom I met in New York. cf., I consulted him.

Which and That

This is one of the most common mistakes out there, and understandably so. “That” is a restrictive pronoun. It’s vital to the noun to which it’s referring.  e.g., I don’t trust fruits and vegetables that aren’t organic. Here, I’m referring to all non-organic fruits or vegetables. In other words, I only trust fruits and vegetables that are organic. “Which” introduces a relative clause. It allows qualifiers that may not be essential. e.g., I recommend you eat only organic fruits and vegetables, which are available in area grocery stores. In this case, you don’t have to go to a specific grocery store to obtain organic fruits and vegetables. “Which” qualifies, “that” restricts. “Which” is more ambiguous however, and by virtue of its meaning is flexible enough to be used in many restrictive clauses. e.g., The house, which is burning, is mine. e.g., The house that is burning is mine.

Lay and Lie

This is the crown jewel of all grammatical errors. “Lay” is a transitive verb. It requires a direct subject and one or more objects. Its present tense is “lay” (e.g., I lay the pencil on the table) and its past tense is “laid” (e.g.,Yesterday I laid the pencil on the table). “Lie” is an intransitive verb. It needs no object. Its present tense is “lie” (e.g., The Andes mountains lie between Chile and Argentina) and its past tense is “lay” (e.g., The man lay waiting for an ambulance). The most common mistake occurs when the writer uses the past tense of the transitive “lay” (e.g., I laid on the bed) when he/she actually means the intransitive past tense of “lie" (e.g., I lay on the bed).

Moot

Contrary to common misuse, “moot” doesn’t imply something is superfluous. It means a subject is disputable or open to discussion. e.g., The idea that commercial zoning should be allowed in the residential neighborhood was a moot point for the council.

Continual and Continuous

They’re similar, but there’s a difference. “Continual” means something that's always occurring, with obvious lapses in time. “Continuous” means something continues without any stops or gaps in between. e.g., The continual music next door made it the worst night of studying ever. e.g., Her continuous talking prevented him from concentrating.

Envy and Jealousy

The word “envy” implies a longing for someone else’s good fortunes. “Jealousy” is far more nefarious. It’s a fear of rivalry, often present in sexual situations. “Envy” is when you covet your friend’s good looks. “Jealousy” is what happens when your significant other swoons over your good-looking friend.

Nor

“Nor” expresses a negative condition. It literally means "and not." You’re obligated to use the “nor” form if your sentence expresses a negative and follows it with another negative condition. “Neither the men nor the women were drunk” is a correct sentence because “nor” expresses that the women held the same negative condition as the men. The old rule is that “nor” typically follows “neither,” and “or” follows “either.” However, if neither “either” nor “neither” is used in a sentence, you should use “nor” to express a second negative, as long as the second negative is a verb. If the second negative is a noun, adjective, or adverb, you would use “or,” because the initial negative transfers to all conditions. e.g., He won’t eat broccoli or asparagus. The negative condition expressing the first noun (broccoli) is also used for the second (asparagus).

May and Might

“May” implies a possibility. “Might” implies far more uncertainty. “You may get drunk if you have two shots in ten minutes” implies a real possibility of drunkenness. “You might get a ticket if you operate a tug boat while drunk” implies a possibility that is far more remote. Someone who says “I may have more wine” could mean he/she doesn't want more wine right now, or that he/she “might” not want any at all. Given the speaker’s indecision on the matter, “might” would be correct.

Whether and If 

Many writers seem to assume that “whether” is interchangeable with “if." It isn’t. “Whether” expresses a condition where there are two or more alternatives. “If” expresses a condition where there are no alternatives. e.g., I don’t know whether I’ll get drunk tonight. e.g., I can get drunk tonight if I have money for booze.

Fewer and Less

“Less” is reserved for hypothetical quantities. “Few” and “fewer” are for things you can quantify. e.g., The firm has fewer than ten employees. e.g., The firm is less successful now that we have only ten employees.

Farther and Further

The word “farther” implies a measurable distance. “Further” should be reserved for abstract lengths you can't always measure. e.g., I threw the ball ten feet farther than Bill. e.g., The financial crisis caused further implications.

Since and Because

“Since” refers to time. “Because” refers to causation. e.g., Since I quit drinking I’ve married and had two children. e.g., Because I quit drinking I no longer wake up in my own vomit.

Disinterested and Uninterested

Contrary to popular usage, these words aren’t synonymous. A “disinterested” person is someone who’s impartial. For example, a hedge fund manager might take interest in a headline regarding the performance of a popular stock, even if he's never invested in it. He’s “disinterested,” i.e., he doesn’t seek to gain financially from the transaction he’s witnessed. Judges and referees are supposed to be "disinterested." If the sentence you’re using implies someone who couldn't care less, chances are you’ll want to use “uninterested.”

Anxious

Unless you’re frightened of them, you shouldn’t say you’re “anxious to see your friends.” You’re actually “eager,” or "excited." To be “anxious” implies a looming fear, dread or anxiety. It doesn’t mean you’re looking forward to something.

Different Than and Different From

This is a tough one. Words like “rather” and “faster” are comparative adjectives, and are used to show comparison with the preposition “than,” (e.g., greater than, less than, faster than, rather than). The adjective “different” is used to draw distinction. So, when “different” is followed by a  preposition, it should be “from,” similar to “separate from,” “distinct from,” or “away from.” e.g., My living situation in New York was different from home. There are rare cases where “different than” is appropriate, if “than” operates as a conjunction. e.g.,Development is different in New York than in Los Angeles. When in doubt, use “different from.”

Bring and Take

In order to employ proper usage of “bring” or “take,” the writer must know whether the object is being moved toward or away from the subject. If it is toward, use “bring.” If it is away, use “take.” Your spouse may tell you to “take your clothes to the cleaners.” The owner of the dry cleaners would say “bring your clothes to the cleaners.”

Impactful

It isn't a word. "Impact" can be used as a noun (e.g., The impact of the crash was severe) or a transitive verb (e.g., The crash impacted my ability to walk or hold a job). "Impactful" is a made-up buzzword, colligated by the modern marketing industry in their endless attempts to decode the innumerable nuances of human behavior into a string of mindless metrics. Seriously, stop saying this.

Affect and Effect

Here’s a trick to help you remember: “Affect” is almost always a verb (e.g., Facebook affects people’s attention spans), and “effect” is almost always a noun (e.g., Facebook's effects can also be positive). “Affect” means to influence or produce an impression — to cause hence, an effect. “Effect” is the thing produced by the affecting agent; it describes the result or outcome. There are some exceptions. “Effect” may be used as a transitive verb, which means to bring about or make happen. e.g., My new computer effected a much-needed transition from magazines to Web porn. There are similarly rare examples where “affect” can be a noun. e.g., His lack of affect made him seem like a shallow person.

Irony and Coincidence

Too many people claim something is the former when they actually mean the latter. For example, it’s not “ironic” that “Barbara moved from California to New York, where she ended up meeting and falling in love with a fellow Californian.” The fact that they’re both from California is a "coincidence." "Irony" is the incongruity in a series of events between the expected results and the actual results. "Coincidence" is a series of events that appear planned when they’re actually accidental. So, it would be "ironic" if “Barbara moved from California to New York to escape California men, but the first man she ended up meeting and falling in love with was a fellow Californian.”

Nauseous

Undoubtedly the most common mistake I encounter. Contrary to almost ubiquitous misuse, to be “nauseous” doesn’t mean you’ve been sickened: it actually means you possess the ability to produce nausea in others. e.g., That week-old hot dog is nauseous. When you find yourself disgusted or made ill by a nauseating agent, you are actually “nauseated.” e.g., I was nauseated after falling into that dumpster behind the Planned Parenthood. Stop embarrassing yourself.

برچسب‌ها: Grammar، common، mistakes، tips، english

دوشنبه 24 تیر‌ماه سال 1392
آموزش تمام زمان های زبان انگلیسی به زبان ساده
tense Affirmative/Negative/Question Use Signal Words
Simple Present A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?
  • action in the present taking place once, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)
Present Progressive A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?
  • action taking place in the moment of speaking
  • action taking place only for a limited period of time
  • action arranged for the future
at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
Simple Past A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?
  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action taking place in the middle of another action
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)
Past Progressive A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action
when, while, as long as
Present Perfect Simple A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
  • putting emphasis on the result
  • action that is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Present Perfect Progressive A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Past Perfect Simple A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)
Past Perfect Progressive A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action
for, since, the whole day, all day
Future I Simple A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?
  • action in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision
  • assumption with regard to the future
in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
assumption: I think, probably, perhaps
Future I Simple

(going to)

A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
  • decision made for the future
  • conclusion with regard to the future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future I Progressive A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future II Simple A: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?
  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
by Monday, in a week
Future II Progressive A: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action
for …, the last couple of hours, all day long
Conditional I Simple A: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?
  • action that might take place
if sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)
Conditional I Progressive A: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?
  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action
 
Conditional II Simple A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
if sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)
Conditional II Progressive A: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action
 

پنج‌شنبه 26 آبان‌ماه سال 1390
آموزش گرامر -حرف تعریف نامعین (Indefinite article)
موارد کاربرد حروف تعریف نامعین (a یا an)

1- هنگامیکه برای اولین بار به کسی یا چیزی اشاره می‌کنیم از a یا an استفاده می‌کنیم. اما وقتی که به همان چیز دوباره اشاره می‌شود، باید از the استفاده کرد:

  • I bought a new shirt yesterday. But my wife thinks the shirt doesn't fit me.

  • (دیروز یک پیراهن نو خریدم. ولی همسرم فکر می‌کند که آن پیراهن اندازه من نیست.)

  • Once I had a really big dog. But the dog wasn't very useful, so I gave the dog toa friend.

  • (زمانی یک سگ خیلی بزرگ داشتم. اما آن سگ خیلی مفید نبود، برای همین سگ را به یک دوست دادم.ا)

2- وقتی که به یک چیز مفرد اشاره می‌شود از a یا an استفاده می‌کنیم. در این حالت همان معنی one یا «یک» را می‌دهد (در مقایسه با three، two و ...):

  • I'd like an apple and two oranges.

  • Yesterday I bought three  pencils and a notebook.

3- در اصطلاحات عددی خاص:

 

a half

یک دوم

 a thirdیک سوم
 an eighthیک هشتم
 a coupleیک جفت
 a dozenیک دوجین
 a hundredصدتا
 a thousandهزارتا
 a millionیک میلیون

4- هنگام اشاره به یک عنصر خاص از یک گروه یا طبقه:

الف. همراه با اسامی شغلها:

  • She's a doctor.

  • My father is a teacher.

  • Are you an engineer?

ب. همراه با ملیتها و مذاهب:

  • I'm an Iranian.

  • You are a Chinese.

  • She is a Catholic.

5- همراه با کلمات و اصطلاحات مربوط به مقدار و کمیت:

  a few (of)

a lot (of)

  a little (of)

a (great) deal (of)

  a bit (of)

a number (of)

6- همراه با اسامی مفرد قابل شمارش و پیش از کلمات what و such:

  • What a beautiful day! (چه روز زیبایی!)

  • What a strange friend you have! (عجب دوست عجیبی داری!)

  • Such a pity! (چه حیف شد!)


یکشنبه 8 خرداد‌ماه سال 1390
Intonation and Stress

 

Say this sentence aloud and count how many seconds it takes.

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.
Time required? Probably about 5 seconds. Now, try speaking this sentence aloud.

He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening.
Time required? Probably about 5 seconds.

Wait a minute the first sentence is much shorter than the second sentence!

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance
He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening
You are only partially right!


This simple exercise makes a very important point about how we speak and use English. Namely, English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered syllabic. What does that mean? It means that, in English, we give stress to certain words while other words are quickly spoken (some students say eaten!). In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).

Many speakers of syllabic languages don't understand why we quickly speak, or swallow, a number of words in a sentence. In syllabic languages each syllable has equal importance, and therefore equal time is needed. English however, spends more time on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other, less important, words.

Let's look at a simple example: the modal verb "can". When we use the positive form of "can" we quickly glide over the can and it is hardly pronounced.

They can come on Friday . (stressed words underlined)

On the other hand, when we use the negative form "can't" we tend to stress the fact that it is the negative form by also stressing "can't".

They can't come on Friday .

As you can see from the above example the sentence, "They can't come on Friday" is longer than "They can come on Friday" because both the modal "can't" and the verb "come" are stressed.

So, what does this mean for my speaking skills?

Well, first of all, you need to understand which words we generally stress and which we do not stress. Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDSsuch as

  • Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter
  • (most) principal verbs e.g. visit, construct
  • Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting
  • Adverbs e.g. often, carefully



Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as

  • Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few
  • Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were
  • Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite
  • Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as
  • Pronouns e.g. they, she, us


Let's return to the beginning example to demonstrate how this affects speech.

The beautifu l Mountain appeared transfixe d in the distance . (14 syllables)

He can come on Sunday s as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening
. (22 syllables)

Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressedwords in each sentence. From this example, you can see that you needn't worry about pronouncing every word clearly to be understood (we native speakers certainly don't). You should however, concentrate on pronouncing the stressed words clearly.

Now, do some listening comprehension or go speak to your native English speaking friends and listen to how we concentrate on the stressed words rather than giving importance to each syllable. You will soon find that you can understand and communicate more because you begin to listen for (and use in speaking) stressed words. All those words that you thought you didn't understand are really not crucial for understanding the sense or making yourself understood. Stressed words are the key to excellent pronunciation and understanding of English.

I hope this short introduction to the importance of stress in English will help you to improve  your understanding and speaking skills 

 

 

 

GOOD LUCK 

 

 


شنبه 2 شهریور‌ماه سال 1387
آموزش گرامر زیان انگلیسیabstract noun

An abstract noun is a noun that you cannot sense; it is the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They have no physical existence, you can't see, hear, touch, smell or taste them. The opposite of an abstract noun is a concrete noun.

For example:-

Justice; an idea, bravery and happiness are all abstract nouns.

Here is an a-z list of some common abstract nouns:-

adoration

artistry

 

 

 

 

belief

bravery

 

 

 

 

calm

charity

childhood

comfort

compassion

 

dexterity

 

 

 

 

 

ego

 

 

 

 

 

failure

faith

feelings

friendship

 

 

happiness

hate

honesty

hope

 

 

idea

impression

infatuation

 

 

 

joy

 

 

 

 

 

law

liberty

love

loyalty

 

 

maturity

memory

 

 

 

 

omen

 

 

 

 

 

peace

pride

principle

power

 

 

redemption

romance

 

 

 

 

sadness

sensitivity

skill

sleep

success

sympathy

talent

thrill

truth

 

 

 

wit

 

 

 

 

 

 


شنبه 5 خرداد‌ماه سال 1386
A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CONJUNCTIONS

 

A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence. When a coordinating conjunction is used to join elements, the element becomes a compound element. Correlative conjunctions also connect sentence elements of the same kind: however, unlike coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. Subordinating conjunctions, the largest class of conjunctions, connect subordinate clauses to a main clause. These conjunctions are adverbs used as conjunctions.

The following tables show examples of the various types of conjunctions and some sample sentences using the conjunctions. Since coordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions are closed sets of words, all are included in the list. Subordinating conjunctions are a larger class of words; therefore, only a few of the more common ones are included in this list.

 

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

F

A

N

B

O

Y

S

for

and

nor

but

or

yet

so

 

An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions. Remember, when using a conjunction to join two sentences, use a comma before the conjunction.

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

 

CONJUNCTION

WHAT IS LINKED

SAMPLE SENTENCES

and

noun phrase+noun phrase

We have tickets for the symphony and the opera.

but

sentence+sentence

The orchestra rehearses on Tuesday, but the chorus rehearses on Wednesday.

or

verb+verb

Have you seen or heard the opera by Scott Joplin?

 

 

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 

both...and

not only...but also

either...or

neither...nor

whether...or

 

Remember, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They join similar elements.When joining singular and plural subjects, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 

CONJUNCTIONS

WHAT IS LINKED

SAMPLE SENTENCE

both...and

subject+subject

Both my sister and my brother play the piano.

either...or

noun+noun

Tonight's program is either Mozart or Beethoven.

neither...nor

subject+subject

Neither the orchestra nor the chorus was able to overcome the terrible acoustics in the church

not only...but also

sentence+sentence

Not only does Sue raise money for the symphony, but she also ushers at all of their concerts.

 

 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

TIME

CAUSE + EFFECT

OPPOSITION

CONDITION

after

because

although

if

before

since

though

unless

when

now that

even though

only if

while

as

whereas

whether or not

since

in order that

while

even if

until

so

 

in case (that)

 

Subordinating conjunctions, (subordinators) are most important in creating subordinating clauses. These adverbs that act like conjunctions are placed at the front of the clause. The adverbial clause can come either before or after the main clause. Subordinators are usually a single word, but there are also a number of multi-word subordinators that function like a single subordinating conjunction. They can be classified according to their use in regard to time, cause and effect, opposition, or condition. Remember, put a comma at the end of the adverbial phrase when it precedes the main clause

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

CONJUNCTION

SAMPLE SENTENCE

after

We are going out to eat after we finish taking the test.

since

Since we have lived in Atlanta, we have gone to every exhibit at the High Musuem.

while

While I was waiting in line for the Matisse Exhibit, I ate my lunch.

although

Although the line was long and the wait over two hours, the exhibit was well worth it

even if

Even if you have already bought your ticket, you will still need to wait in line.

because

I love Matisse's works because he uses color so brilliantly.

 

RESOURCES:

  • Azar, B. S.(1993). Understanding and Using English Grammar. Englewood Hills, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
  • Byrd, P. and Benson, B. (1992). Applied English Grammar. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Greenbaum, S. and Quirk, R. (1990). A Student's Grammar of the English Language. Essex, England: Longman.
  • Hodges, J. and Whitten, M. (1984). Harbrace College Handbook. Atlanta: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publisher.

پنج‌شنبه 12 خرداد‌ماه سال 1384

English language words

 

Parts of speech

Nouns       e.g. chair, information, happiness

Verbs       e.g. choose, tell, and complain

Adjectives     e.g. happy, tall, dangerous

Adverbs       e.g. slowly, carefully, often

 Prepositions     e.g. in, at, on

 Pronouns       e.g. me, you, him, we, it, she

Articles      e.g. definite article (the); indefinite article (a/an)  

 

Special! Terms

 

Uncountable noun: (U) a noun which has no plural form and cannot be used with the indefinite article, e.g. information.

Plural noun: (p1) a noun which only has a plural form and cannot be used with the indefinite article, e.g. trousers.

Infinitive: the base form of a verb, e.g. (to) work, (to) stop, (to) be.

Phrasal verb: a verb + adverb and/or preposition, e.g. turn on (verb + adverb), look after (verb + preposition), give up (verb + adverb), and put up with (verb + adverb + Preposition)

Idiom: a group of words with a meaning that is different from the individual words, e.g. never mind, hang on, a short cut, keep an eye on something.

Transitive verb: a verb which needs a direct object, e.g. Police caught the man (‘the man’ the direct object of the verb ‘caught’).

Intransitive verb: a verb which does not need a direct object, e.g. the books arrived on time. (There is no direct object after arrive.)

  

Word building 

In the word uncomfortable, un- is a prefix, comfort is a root, and -able is a suffix. Other common prefixes include: re-, in-, and dis-; common suffixes include: -ity, -ment, and -ivt Many words also have synonyms, which are words with the same meaning. For example; ‘big’ is a synonym of ‘large’. The opposite is small’.  

Pronunciation

Dictionaries show the Pronunciation of a word using phonetic symbols. Each word contains one or more syllables: ‘book’ has one syllable; ‘before’ has two syllable (be-fore); ‘cinema’ has three syllables (ci-ne-ma); ‘education’ has four syllables (e-du-ca. tion); and so on. 

For pronunciation, it is important to know which syllable has the main stress. On ‘before’ is the second syllable (be ‘fore) on ‘cinema’ it is the first (‘cinema); and on ‘education’ it is third (edu’cation). 

Note: Dictionaries mark stress in different ways: in bold (return); or a ‘before the main syllable (re’turn). Make sure you understand how your dictionary shows it.

  

Punctuation

Full stop.          Comma,           brackets ( )       hyphen -          question mark ?


پنج‌شنبه 12 خرداد‌ماه سال 1384
Abbreviated styles

سلام
تافل بخش شنیداری هم داره.
و اما ادامه درس

Abbreviated styles 

Some styles of writing and speech have their own special grammar rules, often because

Of the need to save space or time. 

1) Advertisements and instructions 

Small ads and instructions often leave out articles, subject or object pronouns, forms of be and prepositions. 

Cars wanted for cash. Contact Evans, 6 Latton Square.

(Not cars are wanted for cash…)  

Single man looking for flat oxford area. Phone 806127 weekends. Job needed urgently.

Will do anything legal. Call 31563. Pour mixture into large saucepan, heat until boiling, then add three pounds sugar and leave on low heat for 45 minutes.

Can be assembled in ten minutes. Easy to clean. Simple controls. Batteries not included. 

۲)    Notes

Informal notes, diary entries etc often follow similar rules.

Gone to hairdresser. Back 12.30.

Book tickets            phone Ann            see Joe 11.00                  meeting Sue lunch 

The same style may be used in postcards and short information letters.

Dear, Gran

Watching tennis on TV. A good book. Three meals a day. No washing up. Clean sheets every day. Everything done for me. Yes, you’ve guessed-in hospital!!

Only went to doctor for cold-landed up in hospital with pneumonia!! If you have time please tell the others-would love some letters to cheer me up.

Hope to see you.

Love, Pam 

۳)    Commentaries

Commentaries on fast –moving events like football matches also have their own grammar. Less important verbs are often left out.

Goal kick…and ball… the score still Spurs3, Arsenal 1….that’s Pearce….Pearce to Coates...Good ball…Sawyer running wide…Billings  takes it, through to Matthews, Matthews with a cross, oh, and Billings in Beautifully, a good chance there- and it’s a goal! 

4)    Titles, notices etc

Titles, labels, headlines, notices and slogans usually consist of short phrases, not complete sentences. Articles are often left out, especially in the names of buildings and institutions.

 Royal Hotel

Super Cinema

Information office

Bus stop

Police out

More money for nurses 

5)    Headlines

Newspapers headlines have their own special grammar and vocabulary.

Record drugs haul at airport: six held
Four die in blaze


سه‌شنبه 4 اسفند‌ماه سال 1383
A Quick Review of the Tenses (1

A Quick Review of the Tenses (1)

 

 

 

Present continues (I am doing)

 

We use the present continues when we talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking, around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking, a period around the present such as: today, this week, and we use the present continues when we talk about changing situations. Now read these examples and if you would like, you can give us your own examples:

 

1)      Please don’t make so much noise. I am studying.

2)      “Where’s Peggy?”  She’s taking a bath.

3)      Maria is studying English at a language school.

4)      Is your English getting better?

5)      The population of the world is rising very fast.

 

 

 

 

Simple present (I do)

 

We use the simple present to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about the present. We use to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking. We use do/does to make questions and negative sentences. We use the simple present when we say how often we do things.

Note that we say “where do you come from?” (= where are you from?)

Now read these examples and if you would like, you can give us your own examples:

 

1)      The earth goes around the sun.

2)      Nurses take care of patients in hospitals.

3)      Excuse me, do you speak English?

4)      “Would you like a cigarette?” “No, thanks. I don’t smoke.”

5)      What does this word mean? (Not what means this word?)

6)      I get up at 6:30 every morning.

7)      How often do you go to go to the dentists?

8)      Where do you come from? (Not where are you coming from?)

9)      He comes from Japan. (Not he is coming from Japan.)

 

 

Present tenses (I am doing/ I do) with a future meaning

 

When you are talking about what you have already arranged to do, use the present continuous (I am doing). Do not use the simple present (I do). It is also possible to use going to (do).Do not use will to talk about what you have already arranged to do.

 

1)      What are you doing tomorrow evening? (Not what do you do?)

2)      I am going to the theater.

3)      Are you playing tennis tomorrow?

4)      What are you going to do tomorrow evening?

5)      Alex is getting married next month.( not Alex will get married.)

 

We use the simple present when we are talking about timetables, schedules, etc. (for example, public transportation, movies):

 

1)      What time does the move begin?

2)      The football match starts at 2:00.

3)      Tomorrow is Wednesday.

 

 

 

Going to (I am going to do)

 

We use going to (do) when we say what we have already decided to do, or what was intended to do in the future. We prefer to use the present continues ( I am doing) when we say what someone has arranged to do- for example , arranged to meet someone, arranged to travel somewhere. We use was/were going to say what someone intended to do in the past (but didn’t do).

Going to has another meaning. We use going to when we say what we think will happen. Usually there is something in the present situation (the man walking toward the hole) that makes the speaker sure about what will happen.

 

1)      There is a movie on TV tonight. Are you going to watch it?

2)      What time are you meeting Kim?

3)      We were going to take the train but, then we decided to go by car.

4)      Look at those black clouds! It is going to rain.




 


دوشنبه 3 اسفند‌ماه سال 1383
Prefixes

Prefixes

 

Prefixes (at the beginning of words) can help you to understand what a new word means. Here are some common prefixes.

prefix

meaning

example

Ex( + noun)

Was but not now

Ex-wife, ex-president

Half(+ noun or adjective)

5% of something

Half-price , half-hour

In , im(+adjective)

not

Informal, impossible

Non(+adjective or noun)

not

Non-smoking

pre

before

Pre-school

Re( +verb)

again

Redo, rewrite

Un(+adjective)

not

Unhappy, unsafe

 

 

An ex-wife is a wife who is now divorced.

 

President Gorbachev is an ex-President of Russia.

 

A half-hour journey is a journey of 30 minutes.

 

Something that cost 10$ yesterday and cost 5$ today is half-price.

 

Informal clothes are clothes like jeans and trainers. Formal clothes are things like a suite.

 

If something is impossible, you can’t do it. It is impossible to read with your eyes closed.

 

A non-smoking room is a room where people may not smoke.

 

Pre-school children are children who are still too young to go to school.

 

To redo something is to do it a second time and to rewrite something is to write it a second time.

 

Unhappy means sad, the opposite of happy.

 

Unsafe means dangerous, the opposite of safe.

 

 


یکشنبه 4 بهمن‌ماه سال 1383
Both / Both of us, neither / neither of, either / either of

 

We use both, neither and either when we are talking about two things. You can use these words with a noun:

 

Both restaurants are very expensive. (Not the both restaurants)

Neither restaurant is expensive.

We can go either restaurant. I don’t care. (Either=one or the other; it doesn’t matter which one)

I didn’t like either restaurant. (Not the one or the other)

 

 

You can also use both/neither/either with of….When you use these words with of; you always need the/these/those/my/yours/his, etc. You cannot say, “Both of restaurants.” You have to say “Both of the restaurants,” etc.:

 

Both of these restaurants are very good.

Neither of the restaurants we went to, was (or were) expensive.

We can go to either of those restaurants. I don’t mind.

 

With both you can leave out of. So you can say:

 

Both my parents        or

Both of my parents

 

 

After both of / neither of / either of you can also use us/them/you:

 

Can either of you speak Spanish?

I wanted Tom and Jim to come, but neither of them wanted to.

 

You must say: “both of” before us/you/them:

 

Both of us were very tired. (Not both us…)

 

After neither of…you can use a singular or a plural verb:

 

Neither of the children wants (or want) to go to bed.

Neither of us is (or are) married.

 

 

You can say bothand…, neithernor…, and eitheror… Study these examples:

 

Both Tom and Jack were late.

They were both tired and hungry.

Neither Jill nor Jane came to the party.

He said he would contact me, but he neither wrote nor called.

I’m not sure where he is from. He’ll either Spanish or Italian.

Either you apologize or I’ll never speak to you again.

 

You can also use both/neither/either alone:

 

“Is he British or American?”    Neither. He’s Australian.”

“Do you want tea or coffee?”   Either. It doesn’t matter.”

I couldn’t decide which one to choose. I liked both.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


پنج‌شنبه 29 مرداد‌ماه سال 1383
Unless, as long as, and provided/providing (that)

اول از همه از همه دوستانی که به این وب لاگ لطف دارن کمال تشکر را دارم.امیدوارم مطالبی که مینویسم برای همه مفید باشد.من تمام سعی و تلاشم را میکنم تا انگلیسی را به عنوان زبان دوم به ملتم به دوستانم به همه یاد بدم.انگلیسی مهم است.چون زبان بین المللی است واگر می خواهید در زندگیتان پیشرفت کنید نیاز به ارتباط با سایر کشور ها را داری و برای این ارتباط نیاز به یک وسیله مشترک دارید و آن زبان انگلیسی است. 

و یه چیز دیگه.اگر بعضی اوقات دیر به دیر آپدیت میکنم عذر میخوام.این رو بدونید شاید دیر آپدیت کنم ولی هر گز دست از کارم نمیکشم و نخواهم کشید. 

 

Unless


Study this example situation
:
 


Joe is always listening to music. If you speak to him normally, he can’t hear you. If you
 want him to hear you, you have to shout.

Joe can’t hear unless you shout.

 

This means: “Joe can hear only if you shout.” Unless means except if. We use unless to make an exception to something we say. .

 

Here are some more examples of unless:

Don’t tell Ann what I said unless she asks you. (= except if she asks you)

I’ll come tomorrow unless I have to work. (= except if I have to work)

I wouldn’t eat between meals unless I were extremely hungry. (= except if I were extremely hungry)

 

We often use unless in warnings:

 

We’ll be late unless we hurry. (= except if we hurry)

Unless you work harder, you’re not going to pass the exam. (= except

you work harder)

 

Instead of unless it is possible to say if. . . not.

 

Don’t tell Ann what I said if she doesn’t ask you.

We’ll be late if we don’t hurry.

 

As long as      provided (that)         providing (that)

 

these expressions mean but only if:

 

You can use my car as long as (or so long as) you drive carefully. (= but only if you drive carefully)

 

Traveling by car is convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park. (= but only if you have somewhere to park)

 

Providing (that) she studies hard, she should pass the exam. (= but only if she studies hard)

 

When you are talking about the future, do not use will with unless, as long as, provided or providing. Use a present tense:

 

We’ll be late unless we hurry. (not unless we will hurry)

 

Providing she studies hard. . . (not providing she will study)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


دوشنبه 19 مرداد‌ماه سال 1383
Subjunctive (I suggest you do)

 

You can use the subjunctive after these verbs:

 

Propose            recommend       insist     demand

 

• I suggest (that) you take a vacation.

 

• They insisted (that) we have dinner with them.

 

• I insisted (that) he have dinner with me.

 

• He demanded (that) she apologize to him.

 

You can use the subjunctive for the present, past, or future:

 

I insist you come with us.

They insist I go with them.

 

Other structures are possible after insist and suggest:

 

• They insisted on my having dinner with them.

 

• She suggested that he buy some new clothes. (not suggested him to buy)

 

• What do you suggest I do? (not suggest me to do)

 

Should is sometimes used instead of the subjunctive.

 

• She suggested that he should buy some new clothes.

• The doctor recommended that I should rest for a few days.


شنبه 10 مرداد‌ماه سال 1383
May (have) and might (have)

 

 

Study this example situation:

 

You are looking for Jack. Nobody knows for sure where he is, but

you get some suggestions:

He may be in his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)

He might be having lunch. (= perhaps he is having lunch)

Ask Ann.She might know.

 

We use may or might to say that something is possible. You can say:

 

He may be in his office. or He might be in his office.

 

 

The negative is may not and might not:

 

• Jack might not be in his office. (= perhaps he isn’t in his office)

• I’m not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough.

(= perhaps I don’t have enough)

 

 

To say what was possible in the past, we use may have (done) and might have (done):

 

A: I wonder why Ann didn’t answer the doorbell.

B: Well, I suppose she may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep)

 

A: Why didn’t he say hello when he passed us on the street?

B: He might have been daydreaming. (= perhaps he was daydreaming)

 

A: I can’t find my hag anywhere.

B: You might have left it in the store. (= perhaps you left it)

 

A: I wonder why Jill didn’t come to the meeting.

B: She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn’t know)

 

You can use could instead of may or might. But with could the possibility is smaller:

 

• “Where’s Jack?” “I’m not sure. He could be in his office, I suppose, but he’s not usually there at this time.”

 

 

 


یکشنبه 4 مرداد‌ماه سال 1383
Must (have) and can’t (have)

Must (have) and can’t (have)

 

Study this example situation:این مثال را بخوانید

 

Liz is a very good tennis player, and not many players beat her. But yesterday she played against Bill and Bill won. So:

Bill must be a very good player (otherwise he wouldn’t have won).

 

We use must to say we are sure that something is true:از must زمانی استفاده میکنیم که مطمئن هستیم چیزی صحیح است.

 

You’ve been traveling all day. You must be tired. (= I am sure that you are

tired.)

 

I hear that your exams are next week. You must be studying very hard right now. (= lam sure that you are studying.)

 

Carol knows a lot about films. She must like to go to the movies. (= I am

sure she likes to go to the movies.)

 

We use can’t to say that we think something is impossible: از can’t زمانی استفاده میکنیم که فکر میکنیم چیزی غیر ممکن است.

 

You’ve just had dinner. You can’t be hungry already. (= It is impossible that you are hungry.)

 

Tom said that he would be here ten minutes ago, and he is never late, He can’t be coming.

 

 

For the past we use must have (done) and can’t have (done). Study this example:

We went to Roy’s house last night and rang the doorbell. There was no answer. He must have gone out (otherwise he would have answered).

 

 

The phone rang, but I didn’t hear it. I must have been asleep.

 

I made a lot of noise when I came home. You must have heard me.

 

She passed me on the street without speaking. She can’t have seen me.

 

Tom walked into the wall. He can’t have been looking where he was goit

 

“Couldn’t have (done)” is possible instead of “can’t have (done)”:

 

 She couldn’t have seen me.

 

• He couldn’t have been looking where he was going.


پنج‌شنبه 21 اسفند‌ماه سال 1382
Present perfect continues (I have been doing)

Present perfect continues (I have been doing)

Is it raining?

No, it isn’t, but the ground is wet

It has been raining.

This is the Present perfect continues.

I/we/they/you have (=I’ve, etc.) been doing.

He/she/it has (=he’s, etc.) been doing.

زمانی از ماضی نقلی استفاده میکنیم که رویدادی در گذشته سروع شود و اخیرا به پایان رسیده باشد.مثال:

You’re out of breath. Have you been running?

Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?

I’ve been talking to Tom about your problem, and he thinks…

...


دوشنبه 11 اسفند‌ماه سال 1382
Present perfect (I have done) 2

Present perfect (I have done) 2

روش ساختن ماضی نقلی(حال کامل)

Have وhas +اسم مفعول.

وقتی که ماضی نقلی(حال کامل)به کار می بریم رابطه ای با حال بوجود می آید.به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید:

I’ve lost my key. (=I don’t have it now)

Jim has gone to Canada. (=he is in Canada or on his way to there now.)

اغلب زمانی که از ماضی نقلی(حال کامل)استفاده میکنیم میخواهیم اطلاعات جدید بدهیم یا در مورد رویدادی خبر بدهیم:

I’ve lost my key. Can you help me to look for it?

Did you hear about Peggy? She has gone to Canada.

ماضی نقلی(حال کامل) را با just هم به کار میبریم:

Would you like something to eat? “No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.”

ماضی نقلی(حال کامل) را با already زمانی به کار میبریم که چیزی زودتر از زمانی که باید به وقوع می پیوست افتاده است:

Don’t forget to mail the letter. “I’ve already mailed it.”

 

مکالمه زیر را بخوانید:

Dave: Have you traveled a lot?

Jane: yes, I’ve been to 47 different countries.

Dave: Really? Have you ever been to China?

Jane: Yes. I’ve visited China twice.

Dave: What about India?

Jane: No. I’ve never been to India.

وقتی که میخواهیم در باره یک دوره از زمان که تا حال ادامه دارد حرف بزنیم از ماضی نقلی استفاده میکنیم.جین و دیوید با هم در مورد کشورهایی که جین تا با حال دیده است حرف میزنند.

مثالهای دیگری در این مورد:

Have you ever read Hamlet? “No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s.

Peggy really loves that movie. She’s seen it five times.
...


شنبه 9 اسفند‌ماه سال 1382
Present perfect (I have done) 1

Present perfect (I have done) 1

به این مثال توجه کنید:

Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it now.

He has lost his key.

He has lost his key.”"  معنی این جمله این است که کلیدش را از چند دقیقه قبل گم کرده و هنوز پیداش نکرده است.

This is the present perfect (simple) tense:

I/we/they/you have (=I’ve, etc.) lost.     

He/she have (=he’s, etc.) lost.              

  I (etc.) haven’t lost.         He/she hasn’t lost
Have you (etc.) lost?      Has he/she lost?        
...


شنبه 2 اسفند‌ماه سال 1382
Going to (I am going to do)
Going to (I am going to do)

Going to را زمانی به کار میبریم که از قبل تصمیم گرفته ایم کاری را در آینده انجام دهیم:

There is a movie on TV. Are you going to watch it?

No, I am too tired. I am going to make it an early night.

حالت دوم برای این زمان:

What time are you to meeting Peggy? (Or …are you going to meet)

و باز حالت دیگری که از این زمان استفاده میکنیم.اگر مثال زیر را بخوانید متوجه خواهید شد.

Look at those black clothes. It is going to rain.


شنبه 2 اسفند‌ماه سال 1382
Simple present (I do)

Simple present (I do)

زمان حال ساده را زمانی و برای چیزیهایی به کار می بریم که مدام به وقوع میپیوندند تکرار می شوند.مثلا میگوییم :"او راننده اتوبوس است".او شغلش همین است.یعنی هر روز این کار را انجام میدهد.به سایر مثالهای زیر توجه کنید:

The earth goes around the sun.

Nurses take care of patients in hospitals.

فراموش نکنید :He/She/It-s  

I work in a bank. Barry works in a department store.


   1       2    >>
برای عضویت در خبرنامه این وبلاگ نام کاربری خود در سیستم بلاگ اسکای را وارد کنید
نام کاربری
تعداد بازدیدکنندگان : 2092164


Powered by BlogSky.com
Search Engine Optimization

عناوین آخرین یادداشت ها

طراحی سایت تاریخ ایران لینکدونی تبادل لینک Used Engines دانلود کتاب اسطوره اساطیر Ancient Civilizations Eski Tarih تاریح القدیم دایرکتوری تبادل لینک مشاهیر چهره های ماندگار دکتر شریعتی لینک های داغ دانلود کتاب رایگان ابهر abhar تاریخ فلسفه used engines used egnines honda used engines used transmission اخبار خبر ایران باستان تبلیغات آگهی رایگان آشپزی تبادل لینک مجله پزشکی فارس نویس فروشگاه نیازمندی ها شعر پارسی فارسی آگهی رایگان تبلیغات رایگان download دانلود مصر باستان